SOME BUSINESS IDEAS FOR YOUNG SCHOOL LEAVERS PREMEABLE BY BAR. DICKSON IKHANE

SOME BUSINESS IDEAS FOR YOUNG SCHOOL LEAVERS PREMEABLE BY BAR. DICKSON IKHANE

Each of us carries the candlestick of success within us, but we only get it lit by some habits which must be cultivated over time and among which hard work is salient. In order not to have a hard life, one must work hard. Laziness tends to poverty. To amount to failure in life, just sit and do nothing. Besides being industrious, one needs planning. Planning is crucial to success and it refers to putting in place measures that help you reach where you are going. To succeed, espouse the virtue of diligence and careful planning. Any great enterprise is the result of right planning, it isn’t accident. Also in the success story is the topic of discipline. Anyone whose dreams and desires success must be disciplined. This calls for you to deny yourself some present pleasure in order to lay hold on future gain. Some key areas you need discipline in order to succeed are your thought, speech, time, money, appetite and relationships both with peers and opposite sex. Show strong determination to succeed – more than ever before be determined in life to succeed. Determination is a strong desire to achieve something, to realize some set goals. It means having your mind firmly made up on the pursuit of your dream and in reaching your goal. Life’s success stories are a cumulative of small steps taken over time.

Plan is like a seed planted which passes through three main stages. First is the blade stage, at which point there is nothing to celebrate in terms of dividend since the tender blade is at the mercy of lots of dangers that can stifle its growth. The ear phase is second, at which point there is great hope and encouragement since it is just a little while before the joy of harvest comes. Coming finally is the corn stage which is the fruition, the season of harvest. Every plan of man undergoes this process, and time is what separates sowing from reaping. To make this work, cultivate patience. Patience is a key ingredient in the success meal. Endure hard times; he that will eat the kernel must crack the nut. Success in life isn’t casual or by accident; it is purposeful.

 HOW TO START A UNIQUE BARBING SALON BUSINESS

Starting a barbing salon business is definitely one business idea that you have to consider. It is not only lucrative but fun and entertaining. When a banker resigns from the banking industry to set up a barbershop, he is either crazy or knows something that most people don’t. That was the case for Bruno Oaikhinan, the founder, and CEO of Bruno’s place (one of the top 5 hair salons in Lagos Nigeria).

After taking a look at other lucrative business ideas including commercial cleaning businessLaundry and dry cleaning businessbread bakery businesscooking gas distribution businesscomputer business center, and farming business ideas, starting your own barbing salon business is totally worth the while. Luckily, a good barber shop will always attract new customers, even in a recession. Human hair will not stop growing just because the economy isn’t.

The average man cares about his look and visits the barbershop every week, parting with between N200 and N5000 as service cost, thereby spending between N800 and N20,000 in a month. Therefore, we can safely assume that a barbershop with an average of 100 customers per month, can earn between N80,000 and N500,000 every month.

There are other highly recommended small business ideas for men, but we will be considering this aspect in this article. Therefore, if you’re thinking of starting your own salon business, then read along.

Things You Need To Do Before Starting Your Barbing Salon

·        Get the Necessary Skills & Training

You must offer your customers the best of services and there is no better way than to get the appropriate training. A six months training in hair cutting, styling, treatment, and care will go a long way to set you apart from the crowd.

Much more than everyday style, you need to keep up with styles that are in vogue. Read celebrity magazines, follow renowned hair stylists on Instagram and Facebook and see what their latest offerings look like. And peradventure you employ a staff, get the best. Don’t employ rookies because you want to save cost. Protect your brand.

·        Get an Accessible Location for Your shop

If you intend to attract the choicest customers, your location must speak for your business. Site your business in a clean, spacious and accessible location. Shopping malls are good locations but you can also find other wonderful locations to plant your shop. It is always good to have a parking spot for car owners. Let them know you have enough room for them. This will go a long way to affect the way people patronize your services.

·        Setup Your Shop

What’s an idea without a corresponding action? Now is the time for you to purchase your equipment and other important tools to get your shop running. For starters, you will need the following:

List of barbing salon equipment

  1. Rotating/ Barber Chairs
  2. Original Clippers
  3. Sterilizers
  4. Standby Generator
  5. Electronic Sterilizers/ sterilizer kits
  6. Beautiful Furniture
  7. Standing fans/ Air Conditioners
  8. Interior decorations
  9. Cover Clothes
  10. Long and wide wall mirrors
  11. Hair Products & Cosmetics (Hair creams, Hair Sprays, dyes, relaxers, conditioners, Alcohol, etc.)
  12. Head washing basin
  13. Entertainment system
  14. Waiting chairs
  15. Lightning and wiring

·        Get A License

This is to avoid any form of embarrassment from anyone including government agencies and labor associations. Make sure you are registered with the appropriate authorities and bodies.

·        Offer Different Kind of Services

Who said you can’t offer more than a haircut? You could spice things up with the following:

  1. Manicures & pedicures
  2. Spa & makeup services
  3. Sale of clippers, shaving sticks, shaving powders, hair creams, shampoos, hairbrushes, etc.
  4. Making game consoles available for interested players
  5. Selling magazines, perfumes, male ties, cufflinks and other male products.
  6. Haircut training services

·        Have A Unique Selling Point

Barbing salon business is no different from other kinds of businesses; you need to stand out from the competition. Research your competitors to discover what they do differently and where their shortcomings lie. Good character and customer relations, a welcoming salon, modern equipment, and expertise will add a touch of distinction to your business.

·        Finally, It’s All About The Packaging & The Marketing

Customers will pay any amount as long as they get the value for their money. Package your barbing salon business like a 21st-century empire. Have a website because it will be crucial to your marketing efforts and can be used for everything from posting your hours and driving directions to selling salon services and showcasing your works. Be available on Instagram, Facebook and TrustOrRun. Let your existing customers write reviews about your barbing salon. Encourage your workers to dress in a particular style and let the uniformity speak for you.

All in all, barbing salon business is a profitable venture and one that grow into a franchise if well managed.

2.     SOAP MAKING BUSINESS FOR YOUNG SCHOOL LEAVERS

Have you been dreaming about starting you own soap making business but aren’t sure where to start? Yes Soap making is a BIG business here in Nigeria. Soap is a daily need commodity for everyone. There is no place you can’t find soap, be it in our homes, offices, hospitals etc.

Soap making business is a lucrative business to invest in, be it laundry soap, or toilet soap. All are huge are huge necessity. Your production can start from small to large scale. We have local soap producer who have been into this business for long and they are doing greatly well financially through the business.

Do you know you can make a monthly net of over N500,000 in soap making business in Nigeria if you do it well? The key issues in this business has to do with one’s ability to produce quality soaps as good as or even better than what we have in the market. Once you are able to establish yourself as a quality soap maker, you are on your way to becoming a successful soap manufacturer and a respected soap brand owner. So, the secret to success in soap making business is the quality.

A prospective or aspiring entrepreneur can begin this business with N100,000, excluding the cost of renting an operational location or shop. After acquiring the soap making skills from an existing operation, you can also go ahead to buy some basic equipment. You can start in your house, do it in your kitchen, depending on where you go get a space.

What You Will Need For Soap Making

A local welder could help you to do a mould, get a cheap cutting machine for your stamp through which your name can be engrave on your soap. You have started making good money. Pay attention to this article as we explore some of the rudiments in soap making business.

Capital: With as little as N50,000 you can start your own soap making business from home. If you are unsure about how much money you will need upfront, discussing with other entrepreneur will be necessary, it could be money from your purse, friends or loan from the bank etc.

Equipment: These are some of the list of the equipment needed in soap making — A Mould, Cutting Machine and a Trimming Machine.

In addition, a Metallic Stamp is required for labeling if you wish to build your brand, a Safety Hand Glove, Stainless Steel or Plastic Spoons, Paper Towel, Stick Blender, Measuring Cup, Plastic Spoons, Iye, Oils, Organic Ingredients, Scents, Colours and other chemicals.

Major Steps

Choose your recipe

Assemble your ingredients

Prepare your mould by lining inside with parchment paper

Start the measuring

Make sure all ingredient is weighed this includes your liquid ingredients

Measure out your Iye. Make sure you have your hand-gloves and your eyes goggles on to protect you from injury.

Pour the Iye into a water or other liquid.

While the Iye solution is cooling, weigh out the oil and butter

Before mixing, make sure your iye and oil are in the same temperature.

Using a stick blender, mix the Iye and the oil together. While mixing, keep on checking the temperature.

Pour the mixture into the prepared mould smoothing the top with a wooden spoon.

Cover with the mould top.

Then leave for about 24 to 36 hours

Unmold your soap – and you have the finished product ready for the market. Isn’t that simple?

Where and How to Sell Your Soap

There are several sales channels for selling your soaps in Nigeria. If you are just starting, you can start with your family and friends by giving them for free and soliciting them to tell others with word of mouth. Ask them different questions about your products, making inquiries about the products help you make changes and then move to the market proper.

These are some few questions you are expected to ask them:- Find out if the soap lasts long enough? If the fragrance is nice? What they like about the product and what they don’t like? Answers to these questions will help you improve the product before going into the market proper.

Make the color very attractive and nice, have a good marketing skills, sell it online another good place to sell your product is hotels, schools and churches etc.

  1. PHOTOGRAPHY BUSINESS FOR YOUNG SCHOOL LEAVERS

Photographers who make a business out of their craft use sophisticated technology to take photographs and develop prints or prepare digital copies of their work. Photographers know how to use professional camera and lighting equipment, design compositions, work with their subjects, and edit their work to enhance or remove certain elements.

Most photographers work independently and must market their services to potential clients. Some photographers document special events like weddings or photograph individuals, families, or children. Photojournalists work for newspapers and magazines, while fine art photographers may sell their work at art galleries, art shows, or online.Top of Form

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What kind of training is required to become a photographer?

Photographers gain their technical and artistic skills in a variety of ways. Some teach themselves, while others take classes or earn a college degree in photography.

Photography courses are offered at many technical and community colleges, and photographers can build their skills one class at a time without completing a degree. Students can take a course in the fundamentals of photography, including lighting and working with the settings on digital and film cameras. Courses in different types of photography, like wildlife photography, portrait photography, and landscape photography are also typically offered.

Many colleges offer undergraduate and graduate programs in photography, typically leading to a Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA), Master of Fine Arts (MFA), or PhD. Student in photography BFA programs learn about art history and theory, the history of photography, art theory, and photography theory. They will also spend a large amount of time in studio courses where they can practice the skills they are learning. While photography students work in darkrooms learning how to develop prints, they also learn how to use powerful photo editing software to produce digital images.

Some colleges offer degree programs in photojournalism and documentary photography. These programs can lead to bachelor’s or master’s degrees and include coursework in both journalism and photography. Students learn about journalism ethics, news writing and reporting, news editing, and news videography in addition to learning about photography skills like lighting and editing.

Because so many photographers are self-employed, it can be important for them to learn business knowledge in addition to the skills of their craft. To run a successful business they will need to know how to legally set up a business, handle taxes, set costs for their services, and market themselves.

How long does it take to become a photographer?

While there are no strict formal education and training requirements for the profession, it can take years of practice to develop the skills and build the portfolio necessary to earn an income as a photographer.

What are the long term career prospects for photographers?

Photographers with strong technical and artistic skills as well as good business skills can build a successful business for themselves. Clients hire photographers based on the strength of their portfolios, so as photographers gain experience, they should be able to attract bigger clients, whether it’s higher-paying wedding and personal photography work, corporate clients, or regional and national magazines and newspapers.

How can I find a job as a photographer?

Self-employed photographers can start out by taking small jobs or working as an assistant to an established photographer. It is important to build a strong portfolio to attract potential clients, so photographers should take every opportunity to add new, quality work to theirs. Knowing how to market yourself and your business is very important as well.

Some photographers hire a representative to help them find work in their industry. Many different kinds of photographers, including product, fashion, documentary, and fine art photographers use representatives to put them into contact with buyers and clients that they may not be able to reach on their own. Even photographers who use representatives, however, should still continue adding to their portfolios and marketing themselves on their own.

How can I learn more about becoming a photographer?

Many professional photographers talk about the business and craft of photography online. Blogs and magazines like Photo District News and Professional Photographer Magazine may be helpful resources as you learn about making your photography a business.

You can also contact professional photographers in your area to see if they have any advice to offer as you start your career.

4.   SNAIL FARMING TIPS FOR YOUNG SCHOOL LEAVERS

1) Selecting a Snail-Friendly Environment

Snails have a tendency to become easily dehydrated, so they need a place that will help them retain moisture. Building a snail house (called a snailery) in the right location will make a drastic difference for your snails.

It’s best to build your snailery in a low area with minimal wind and sun exposure. The Wind increases moisture loss in snails, drying them out.

Too much sun exposure also leads to drying out. Snails need moisture in order to survive and remain fertile, so building your snailery in a cool, shaded area will help keep them healthy and thriving.

If you don’t have a shaded area or one that is protected from the wind, you may want to consider planting trees or bushes around your snailery to help protect it from the elements.

2) Choosing a Soil Type

The main component of a snail’s habitat is the soil in which it lives. The soil is where snails get the nutrients and substances they need to survive.

The right type of soil can help keep snails hydrated, provide a safe place for snails to lay their eggs, and provide vital nutrients such as calcium to keep snail’s shells intact and healthy.

If you’re planning on using regular potting soil, you may want to add some substrates to it in order to improve its quality. The two best substrates you could add would be loam or humus.

If you’d prefer, you may also use these substrates as your main soil type. The right type of soil will be well balanced. This means it will not be too wet, too dry, or too acidic. For these reasons, you should avoid materials such as clay, pebbles, and added fertilizers.

3) Building Your Snailery

The type and size of the snailery you build will largely depend on the breed and amount you’re planning on raising. Snail farms can be extensive, intensive, or semi-intensive.

Whichever type you choose will have to be escape-proof, since snails reproduce quickly and can become pests when they get out of hand.

One option for your snail farm would be to dig a trench and cover it completely with screen or wire. You may also choose to build a structure from concrete, wood, or other materials, making sure once again to completely cover it with wire or screen. You will also need to make sure you have at least ten inches of soil.

If you prefer not to use wire, you can choose to build a covered box. Snails are a lot stronger than you might realize, though, so make sure the box is secure to avoid having your snails escape.

With any type of snailery, it is important to implement strategies to keep your snails safe from predators. Keeping their environment covered will protect them from large predators such as rats and snakes.

However, you may want to treat your soil so you can protect your snails from small predators such as beetles that may be undeterred by these coverings.

4) Selecting Your Snails

While there are markets that offer snails you can purchase, you may want to be somewhat leery of them. Some markets are reputable, but many of them don’t take the best care of their snails. You’d hate to get your snails home, just to discover they’ve become dehydrated and are no longer fertile.

One option you have would be to forage for snails in the forest. Snails are plentiful in the wild and for the most part, they’re healthy and ready to reproduce. This tactic may take some time to get the results you’re looking for, though, so another option would be to try to draw snails to your property. You can do this by finding a clear area of soil and sprinkling foods that snails enjoy over said area. We’ll cover snail food in the next section.

Another alternative option to buying snails at a market would be to start with snail eggs. This method will take time and patience, so you won’t be able to harvest your snails for some time.

Eggs can be found in markets and stand a much higher chance of still being fertile than full-grown snails. The eggs will need to be put in wet sand and covered with a cocoyam leaf. The eggs will take a little less than a month to hatch.

5) Snail Food

Snails eat a variety of foods, ranging from leafy greens to spicy fruits. Some acceptable foods for snails include pears, cucumbers, cabbage, and lettuce. You may choose to buy snail formula available in markets, though it’s not a necessity.

However, snail formula is good because they usually contain a good amount of calcium.

Alternative sources of calcium include cuttlefish bones, natural chalk, ground oyster shell, burnt and ground snail shell, poultry egg shell or bone meal etc.

Be sure to change the types of foods you feed your snails every once in awhile as snails are prone to food boredom. Snails should be fed on a daily basis, and uneaten food should be removed within 48 hours.

Types of snail feed

  • Leaves: Pawpaw, cocoa yam, cabbage lettuce, okra, eggplant, and cowpea.
  • Fruits: Pawpaw, mango, banana, plantain, eggplant, avocado pear, oil palm, tomatoes, cucumber, sweet orange, guava, pineapple, coconut, breadfruit, cashew, and watermelon.
  • Tubers: cooked cocoa yam, cassava and white yam, sweet potato.
  • Flowers: Pawpaw, sunflower, milk bush
  • Grains: ground maize, guinea corn, cereal
  • Industrial Offshoots: Wheat waste, rice, spent grains, maize, maize chaff, soya bean residue
  • Household Wastes: peels of banana, plantain, pawpaw, pineapple, cassava and rice, cowpea bran.
  • Food Concentrate: It should contain carbohydrate, protein, fats, Mineral (calcium) and Vitamins.
  • Water: Clean water should be available at all times. Avoid the use of chlorinated water (tap water) or water that ha been polluted with insecticides, herbicides or fungicides.

6) Harvesting

Maturity takes 2 years. Only matured snails should be harvested. Check the brim of the shell. For matured snails, the brim is thicker and harder than other parts of the shell. Do not harvest all the matured ones for the market. Keep a few for breeding and to serve as the base stock.

7) Pests and Diseases

Termites, lizards, snakes, ants, chickens, geese and turkeys are the common enemies of snails and should be prevented by all means.

If a large army of soldier ants discover your snail farm, you can lose all of your snails in just one day.

Also, you can expect as much as 10% mortality in the wet season. In the dry season, mortality can be higher.

Also snails are very moody creatures and when you have overcrowded them, they usually resort to cannibalism. Do your best not to overstock.

There are not many diseases identified in snail but fungus and bacterial diseases which are spread by contact have been noticed in overcrowded pens.

Day to Day Running of Your Snail Farm

  • Ensure that your snails live in a clean, fresh, damp environment.
  • Wash their food clean before you give it to them.
  • Remove all old food and feces every day.
  • Give your snails calcium supplements to facilitate their growth.
  • Clean the tank or any housing material when it begins to get dirty. Once a month will do just fine.
  • Change the soil substrate when it starts to look dirty (roughly once a week, depending on the number of snails kept).
  • Bathe the snails regularly (roughly once a month).
  • In the dry season, it will be ideal to irrigate the snail farm regularly or else the snails will hibernate. And when they do, it can last for months.

Why Should You Invest In Snail Farming

1) Snail farming in Nigeria isn’t as common as poultry farming and other livestock farming. Consequently, competition is less.

2) Unlike other animals, snails don’t fall sick so easily. In fact, not much is understood about their diseases that affect snails. So, the chance of losing your snails to an epidemic is little to nothing.

3) It is not a capital-intensive business. Snail farming can be commenced within your own house until you have enough to purchase a piece of land for that purpose.

4) The demand is huge. Snails are not only kept for food but have also found so much usefulness in the Pharmaceutical and beauty industries.

5) Snail farming isn’t as stressful and time-consuming as other forms of farming. You can keep your day job while conveniently running your farm.

6) Snail farming in Nigeria causes less pollution compared to poultry farming. The smell and noise from poultry farms are more than enough to put people off. This does not apply to the snail farming business.

With these tips, you’re now ready to get started on your commercial snail farming business.

Keep in mind that snails generally take about a year to reach maturity, and it’s best to not harvest snails prior to this stage. You can check for maturity by looking at the brim of a snail’s shell. If the brim is thicker and harder than the rest of the shell, then a snail is ready to be harvested.

Remain patient and take good care of your snails.

  

5.   FISH FARMING TIPS FOR YOUNG SCHOOL LEAVERS

1) Capital

Aquaculture (Fish farming), like any other business, can’t be started with due financial analysis.

As a newbie, it is good to start small scale and grow the business as you gain experience and expertise.

As time passes you will gain experience on how to tackle the associated business risks and you might find yourself ready to venture in large-scale fish farming in Nigeria, which is very profitable.

It is difficult to state with certainty the actual cost of starting a fish farm in Nigeria due to the differences in location and the economic situations in the country.

Nonetheless, initial capital is required for:

  • the building of the pond
  • labor
  • registering the business
  • purchasing or renting a piece of land, especially if the land doesn’t belong to you.
  • running costs for buying feeds, fuel or paying electricity bills
  • the cost of buying fingerlings.

While setting up your fish farm, take note that you will need a good sum of money.

Starting fish farming in Nigeria is capital intensive, compared to poultry and snail farming.

A relatively small fish farm may take up to N500,000 to setup, while bigger ones will cost a whole lot more.

2) Fish Species

There are many varieties of fish around the world and not all these varieties are can be grown in Nigeria due to the difference in climate. In fact, very few species can be used for profitable fish farming in Nigeria.

Catfish is the most common type of fish reared in Nigeria. It responds well to the Nigerian climate and it is loved by most people as a good source of meat.

Heteroclarias, Clarias nigrodigitatus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis, and many others are some of the common catfish varieties for commercial aquaculture in Nigeria.

Non-natural breeding technology through hormonal induction is used for catfish breeding and production. One of the major problems with catfish is their cannibalism and to avoid this, keep the unrelated aged and sized fish split from each other.

Other commonly cultivated fish species include:

  • Tilapia – Second to catfish in terms of popularity among Nigerian fish farmers. It lives in fresh shallow water and it is very easy to cultivate. It also reproduces very rapidly and grows fast.
  • Mackerel (Titus) – This is by far the most popular fish in Nigerian market but sadly, it’s not reared by commercial farmers. All Mackerel Fish are caught in the wild.
  • Salmon
  • Common Carp

3) Location

Unlike poultry farming, any location is suitable for cat fish farming in Nigeria. The same can be said about snail farming.

Secure land in the most accessible location for customers.

Better still, use your own building or compound but have a means of transportation to your target market.

Poultry farming wastes can cause great odor, which is why you don’t want to site your poultry farm in a residential area.

Fish farming eliminates this problem. Your fish farm can be anywhere from your backyard to anywhere else, and there will be no problem.

However, as a business minded farmer, you will need to consider how near your farm is to your target market.

4) Marketing

We have already noted the health benefits of fish, which has led to increased fish consumption not only in Nigeria but also in the world. Therefore, we can safely conclude that the fish market is ever blazing.

Compared to other farm produce, fish sells more rapidly.

Fish is also cheaper than beef, thus making it the first choice for consumers.

This does not negate the need for marketing. There are already established fish farmers in Nigeria and you aren’t the only one planning to start a fish farm after reading this post.

You need a marketing plan to complete your fish farming business plan.

Below are some possible means of marketing your fish farm in Nigeria:

  • Word of mouth from friends, family and satisfied customers
  • Online marketing through a company website or blog
  • Social media marketing using facebook, Instagram, etc
  • Free seminars and sensitization on the value of animal proteins
  • Magazine publications
  • Branded products like hand bands, face caps, shirts, etc.
  • Partnership with public and private institutions.
  • Banner ads, etc.

 

 CAKE BAKING BUSINESS FOR YOUNG SCHOOL LEAVERS

Chocolate Cake: When kids get interested in helping their Mom or Dad in the kitchen, one of the first things they want to do is to help bake a cake. It’s a good choice because it is easy, direct and follows the same basic steps every time, with variations that can make it more complicated. Knowing the basics lets you approach making a cake from scratch with great confidence. For this step-by-step example, a chocolate cake is on the menu.

Step 1: Greased and Floured Pans: Before you begin baking, grease and flour the pans you are using. These could be 8-inch rounds, 13-by-9 inch rectangular or a Bundt pan. Then preheat the oven to the temperature as directed in the recipe so that its ready to bake when you are.

Step 2: Melting Ingredients: Its important to have all of the ingredients prepared before making the batter. Many cake recipes call for melted chocolate, so you should do that before beginning to mix up the batter. To melt chocolate, you can use a microwave or a saucepan on the stovetop, the traditional method. There are several ways to melt chocolate. Other ingredient preparation could include chopping nuts or slicing of lemon or orange zest, among many other cakes.

Step 3: Mix the Dry Ingredients: It’s important to measure correctly and the completely mix the dry ingredients so the cake will rise evenly and properly. Use a wire whisk to combine the flour with the leavening agents for a good mixing result.

Step 4: Creaming the Butter and Sugar: Bring the butter to room temperature before you begin baking. When it’s reached the proper temperature, beat it until it’s creamy. Slowly add sugar while mixing, add a little of the sugar at a time and then mix until you have added the full amount.

Step 5: Adding Eggs: Add the eggs to the butter and sugar mixture, one at a time, mix well until bleneded.

Step 6: Adding Chocolate: For a chocolate cake, this is generally when the chocolate is added to the butter and sugar mixture. Be sure to mix it completely. But you should follow the specific recipe you are using on when to add chocolate or other flavor ingredients beyond the basics.

Step 7: Add Flour and Milk: Add the dry ingredients mixture with the milk alternately to the butter and sugar mixture, which now also contains eggs and melted chocolate, and mix well, until it is smooth and uniform. Some recipes add the milk at the end; follow the specific recipe for the best results.

Step 8: Put in the Pans: Carefully divide the batter between two round cake pans or add to one pan if you are using a rectangular or Bundy pan. Gently tap the pans on the counter to even the tops. If necessary, use a spatula to smooth the tops before baking.

Step 9: Cool Cake in Pans: Bake the cakes according to the time and temperature in the recipe directions. Remove from the oven and cool on a rack for 10 minutes or as directed in your recipe. Remove the cakes from the pans and cool completely on wire racks before frosting the cake. Make sure the top layers top is not top down on the rack. Otherwise, there will be grid lines on the top of the cake.

Step 10: The finished Product – Chocolate Fudge Cake: Once the cakes are completely cool, it’s time to frost them. Choose from basic butter cream, cream cheese, ganache or whipped cream. If you have two round cakes, put one top side down on the serving platter and frost it. The put the second cake on top and frost the top and sides. Make swirls as decoration, if desired.

  1. TAILORING FORYOUNG SCHOOL LEAVERS

Just like anything you’re learning how to do, the best way to master the stylish art of sewing is to take it one step at a time. Even then, you must try as much as you can to resign yourself to the fact that starting something new can be overwhelming, especially when you’re doing it yourself.

However, in other to make it a little bit easy, we have compiled a couple of sewing tutorials for you. The tutorials will not only make the process stress free, they will also give you a certain feeling of knowing exactly what you’re doing when you decide to try them out. All that is required of you is dedication and seriousness. So if you’ve always wanted to learn how to sew but never got around to actually do it, here is your chance and time. Read on to see how you can get started with sewing in no time. Here are some basic sewing tutorials for beginners.

  1. Threading your sewing machine: It always seems like threading the sewing machine is very easy until you find yourself doing it for the first time. And even after doing it for the first time, you might still experience some challenges as you sew if you do not know the pitfalls that can prevent you from succeeding. One of those is keeping the thread properly situated in the tension disc.
  2. Taking accurate body measurement: When it comes to sewing, having an accurate measurement is very important. Because once there’s is a mistake with the measurement, the end product will not fit in. And when the end product doesn’t fit in, your reputation as a tailor or seamstress will be ruined.
  3. Cutting your fabric perfectly: As a beginner, you must understand that it is one thing to get the right measurement, and it is also another thing to cut your fabric in accordance with the measurement. Owing to this, it becomes very important for every beginner to know that once a mistake is made with the cutting nothing can be done to change the situation.
  4. Sewing a straight line: After the measurement and cutting of the fabric, what comes next is sewing. And when it comes to sewing, it is almost impossible to find one starter that can sew a straight line without going on a bend.
  5. Know your materials and equipment.Like any other craft or project-making, you have to make sure as well that you know the materials you will need for the activity. Of course, sewing is not just about thread and needle. If you want to invest in a good sewing machine, you have to make sure that you have known your equipment so that you will also know how to use it well. However, one wise thing to do is to take sewing lessons first before even trying to get yourself a sewing machine.
  6. Start with simple projects.One of the things that you have to keep in mind if you are just starting not only in sewing but in any other things that you want to learn, is to start with the simple ones. You can start sewing table runners, pillow cases and other projects that may only require straight and easy sewing. Of course, even how simple your project is, you also have to learn how to make patterns. This will guide you to the proper measurements and proportion of your projects. If you are practicing on your new sewing machine, make sure however that you know how to sew straight lines on it. As this can be tricky, you can also make use of a graphing paper so that you can be at least sure that you are making straight lines. These are just a few things that you might want to remember if you are planning to master sewing for beginners. You can also get yourself some detailed, easy-to-follow resources where you can learn the very little details of sewing for beginners, from putting a thread to the needle, to making patterns and making your first simple projects.

Note:

Sewing cannot be separated from pressing. Pressing, I said, not ironing. If you must get it right as a starter, you must learn how to press your fabric properly.

In other to hit the ground running, here are some pressing tips for you:

There is a difference between pressing and ironing, and that difference can make or break your project.

Use the proper pressing tools for your project – for curved edges or tight spaces it helps to have a pressing ham or a presser bar.

Use the correct heat setting for the fabric you’re pressing, and make sure to test a spare piece of the fabric with your iron before you press the actual project pieces.

Spray starch can help in pressing difficult fabrics or maintaining crisp lines, though there’s a bit of a debate about it in the sewing world.

Sewing tools and equipment and their uses

  1. Scissor

You need them to cut your fabric and thread. I would suggest you buy tailor’s scissors if you can afford them: they last nearly forever and can be sharpened when they start cutting less.

Dimensions matter! To cut fabrics, the longer the better. You should have a little scissor to, just to cut thread tails and avoid to cut fabric too, in the meantime!

A Warning: never use your scissors for anything different from fabric (or thread): never with paper (i.e. cutting patterns), plastic nor other materials, or they will lose their sharpening soon! Warn Your Relatives Too….

  1. Measure Tape

Depending on your preferences, you can use a measuring tape with centimeters or inches (or both, like my pink one, featuring cm on one side and inches on the other, while the yellow/white has cm on both sides).

As you might guess, these sewing tools are used to take measurements, mostly on curvy lines (like circumferences and any other body measurement).

  1. Needles

You’ll need needles for sewing by hand (the one with the pink and blue package) and for the domestic sewing machine (the Schmetz ones are my absolute favorite brand: I just love them!).

You can recognize the sewing machine ones because the eye is near the tip of the needle and the hand sewing kind has it on the other end of the shaft.

  1. Pins and Pincushion(s)

Pins are meant to keep the fabric in place while cutting or sewing; you can buy the all metal kind or the ones with the colored head: just pay attention to choose the glass head ones versus the plastic head (that will melt into your fabric the first time you’ll press above or just next to them with your iron!)

There are different sized pins both in length and thickness, to start just choose the regular ones: you can get the ballpoint (for knits) or the thinner ones (for sheers) once you will master a yellow belt in sewing.

To collect your pins, you can use a repurposed box/can/jar, get a fancy magnetic pin bowl, create a nice pincushion (better if it has a built-in sharpening feature) or refashion your daughter’s wool tights and some DIY boiled wool into a one-of-a-kind wrist pincushion!

  1. Iron and Water Sprayer

Pressing while sewing makes the difference between homemade and handmade! Check my How-To Press list of tips, if you are still thinking that you can skip this step!

I would add to this point: a press cloth (a simple white cotton fabric scrap to put between iron and fabric), a regular iron board and, as soon as you can, add some Fancy Pressing Tool DIY: Tailor’s HamSausage Roll and Pressing Glove: easy to do, lifesaver and money saver!

Your next step will be heading for a point presser/tailor’s clapper, either DIY (a free pattern is included, along with tips for using it) or storebought

  1. Thimble and Threader

While they’re designed for hand sewing, these sewing tools are needful for sewing by machine too! The thimble goes on your middle fingertip to protect it while you push your needle. I use it while I am fixing thread tails left from sewing machine/serger.

The needle threader is useful for threading any kind of needle (for sewing by hand or by machine): you put it in the eye of the needle, then thread it and pull it back, so it threads your needle.

I found it useless on the serger, where tweezers are way better, due to the reduced space (see n°10 below).

  1. Threads

You can’t sew without threads! The most used are cotton (for woven fabrics) or polyester (better for knits) threads, but you can find also nylon and wooly nylon (used in sergers), metallic, silk, rayon… The other things to look at is the thickness of the thread; the most used are weight n°50, that means that 50 km of this thread weighs 1 Kg!

  1. Rulers

You can use any rulers you like, they’re perfect for taking straight measurements (like while adjusting your patterns). I have them from when I went school, they’re transparent so you can look through and see what’s below.

I have a metallic one too (this is really long and it’s good to measure fabric from the bolt), this is newer – no need to have one if you’re not a sewing gadget hoarder like me.

Other measuring tools you might want to add to your wish list are quilters’ rulers, which are extremely helpful when you need to add or subtract a consistent amount, let’s say, from the hem. I have a 6×24″ bigger one and a tiny 1×6″ one.

  1. Pattern weights

Pattern weights are a huge timesaver when you have to cut your pattern shape, mostly on knits, sheer or any fabrics youcan’t pin (like leather or PUL).

The ones in the pic are clearly handmade (from hubby – thanks, Mr.P!), you can use also: canned food, sandbags, heavyweight mugs… anything you have in hand!

I had fun putting together this list fo So Sew Easy: 11 ways to make your own pattern weights… I hope you can find something interesting, there.

  1. Seam Ripper and Tweezers

A Seam Ripper is your best friend, believe me, or not! His primary purpose is to cut seams, both wrong seams (think when you sew together wrong sides instead Right Sides Facing… how many times!!) or existing seams on garments to be refashioned; you’ll find it useful to open your buttonholes if you’ve made them with a sewing machine: this is one of those versatile sewing tools!

Tweezers come with your serger for a reason: you’ll find them essential to thread your needles and loopers unless you have really tiny fingers!!!

  1. Frixion Pens

They’re one of my favorite marking tools, useful for transferring pattern notches onto light colored fabrics. Maybe you can find these ballpoint gel pens on your children’s pencil-case (I do). Yes, ’cause they’re erasable pens that have a side feature: they disappear with heat too!

  1. Chalk

This is one other marking tool I use a lot. There’s a specific tailor’s chalk you can use but I often run out of it (or break it into one hundred tiny pieces… I hate it), so I always keep a couple of boxes of plain chalk, the one you can use on regular chalkboard: it’s cheap, comes in many colours and is good for most situations! The only fact against it is that his markings won’t last long, so use it when you expect to finish your sewing project within the day, just to stay safe!

  1. Lint Roller

I love this (unusual) sewing tool! You can use it to keep your project clean from bits of thread wandering after using your seam ripper…  or if you don’t have a thread catcher (or you own it but still have to get in the habit of using it, like me – so your project acts as a thread catcher itself!).

This one on the pic is from Ikea and is built to catch pet’s hair so it has really strong adhesive power. Any other one will go, just double check you can separately buy the refills.

  1. Sewing Gauge and Binder Clips

This Sewing Gauge is a multipurpose gadget that helps you:

  1. measure and mark hem depth
  2. draw scallops and circles
  3. evenly space buttonholes, tucks, and pleats d. add seam allowances

Little binder clips can be used instead of pins for sewing leather/PUL and for keeping together pattern pieces while already cut out. I have also bought a bag of these Wonder Clips and I love them so much!

  1. Masking Tape

Yes, the masking tape you use when wall painting. Place it on your sewing machine needle plate to mark the distance from the needle: you’ll only have to align your edge to the masking tape… et voilà: a straight hem is done!  Plus: it leaves no traces when you pull it off!

  1. BEADMAKING STEP BY STEP FOR SCHOOL LEAVERS

Bead making is a skill that can be learned without any difficulty. It does not involve too much stress. It is also easy to learn and less time consuming. The materials that are required in making beads are very cheap and very easy to get.

One good thing about bead making is that, you can learn how to make beads on your own and still be very good at it without having to attend any special training class. The only thing you will need is a good instruction manual or guidelines like the information contained in this write-up.

When you attend occasions like weddings, traditional festivals, and even corporate events, you will agree with me that beads have become a trending part of nowadays fashion and lifestyle. Especially for women. Such that, if you decide to start making beads, not just for yourself alone, but commercially, you won’t run into loss. You can work or school and still do bead making along side whatever you are doing and use the returns from selling the beads to support yourself financially.

There is no specific location for making beads. This means that you can make the beads from the comfort of your home or even when you are less busy at work. For tips on how to start bead making business.

There are just a few basic steps you need to know when learning how to make beads. Then you can use the knowledge you have acquired in making various types of beads such as wire works and beaded necklaces. You may not get the skill properly at the beginning but with constant practice, you can be sure that you will soon become a professional in bead making.

Before you can start making the beads, you will need to get some necessary materials like: cutters, round nose pliers, scissors, hooks, stoppers, beads of various colors, strings, flexible beading wire and beading thread, needles.

After getting the materials, the following are the steps you should take:

Step 1: Step-1: Materials Required:

  1. Pendant with multiple holes ( I have one with 5 holes)
  2. Multi-holed metal.  (This is used to differentiate each layer.  I don’t know what it is exactly called as. here I have chosen 1 with 5 )
  3. Sugar beads of you favourite color (should complement the Pendant you have taken).
  4. Craft Wire
  5. Gear locks
  6. Necklace caps (It is a cup shaped metal piece used before inserting the necklace hook).
  7. Necklace Hooks
  8. Necklace Ring.
  9. Scissors
  10. Flat nose Pliers.
  11. Candle (Optional)

Step 2: Step2: How to Start Making Layers?

  1. Cut 5 pieces of Craft wire with following lengths: 68 cm, 62 cm, 56 cm, 50 cm and 44 cm.
    Note: 65 cm wire is for the outer most layer (Hole-5) and 45 cm for the inner most layer (Hole-1).
  2. Tie 44 cm wire to ‘Hole-1’ ,50 cm to ‘Hole-2’, 56 cm to ‘Hole-3’, 62 cm to ‘Hole-4’ and 68 cm to ‘Hole-5’ of the pendant.

Step 3: Step 3: How to Use a Gear Lock to Tighten the Knot?

  1. After making the knot, insert a locking pin to tighten the knot. You should insert the extra piece remaining after inserting the knot in to the gear lock to make the knot tight.
  2. To lock the gear lock, press the gear lock using a flat nose pliers.

Step 4: How Your Layers Would Look Like.

  1. Bead 150 sugar beads in to smallest craft wire. After beading lock the beads using a gear lock.

Note: How to lock using gear lock? – Insert one gear lock at the end of the sugar-bead and press the gear lock using a flat nose pliers.

  1. Bead 200 sugar beads in next craft wire which is attached to hole-2 of the pendant. After beading lock the beads using a gear
  2. Continue beading by increasing the number of beads for remaining craft wires attached to hole-3,4 and 5 of the pendant. Here I have used a little bigger bead of the same color in between as a marker for me to find out that I have completed 50 sugar beads.

Step 5: Differentiating the Layers Using a Multi-holed Piece.

  1. Now take a Multi-holed metal.
  2. Take the layers one by one and pull it across the Multi-holed metal.
  3. ow lock each wire using gear lock by pushing the maximum towards the Multi-holed metal. (I have explained this in Step-3 or you can refer to the figures given below.) Now you have completed the main part of the necklace i.e. creating the layers!

Step-6: What to Do With the Remaining Craft Wire

  1. Bead the remaining craft wire with sugar-beads leaving  behind 1-1.5 inch at the end of the craft wire to attach the necklace hook.
  2. Lock the beads in each craft wire using gear locks. (refer Step-3)
    You are half-way now… A little more to go to finish your beautiful necklace.

Step-7: Attaching Necklace Hooks.

  1. Insert all the 5 wires in to a ‘Necklace Cap’ and then attach the ‘Necklace hook’ and lock it using a gear lock. Now one end of the necklace is completed.

Step-8: Other Side of the Necklace.

  1. Tie 5 craft wires of 15 cm length and tie it in to hole-6 of the pendant.
  2. Bead each craft wire with sugar-beads leaving 1-1.5 inch of the craft wire to attach the ‘Necklace Ring.
  3. Lock the beads in each craft wire using gear locks.
  4. Insert all the 5 wires in to a ‘Necklace Cap’ and then attach the ‘Necklace Ring’ and lock it using a gear lock.

Step-9: Optional Step!

If there is any extra piece of craft wire u can use a candle to melt it and stick all the 5 wires together for additional safety. But should be very careful while doing it, since it can damage your whole work. There are chances that the craft wire may get cut instead of melting depending up on the material.

 

  1. PARK OR RECREATION CENTRE

Viability

Highly lucrative.

Competition

Low due to the large expanse of land required and the amount of investment involved.

Take-up fund

This depends on the location; more cost-intensive in state capitals.

Ready market (demand)

Demand is high if it situated close to an urban area.

Take-off requirement (e.g. registration, union affiliation, tools)

Large expanse of land, pirate ship, mine tram coaster, tea cup ride, bicycle (bark bike), frog jump, bumper boat, go cart, games, horse race (carousel), computer games, merry-go-round, swinger.

Business risk

A rival park with better or more sophisticated facilities may result in poaching of customers and eventual low patronage.

Epileptic power supply may hamper the smooth operation of some fun machines.

Deaths and injury to customers often occasioned by inability of customers to properly operate some equipment may scare some others away.

Modern recreation activities are alien to Nigerians, and as such many may find parks quite awkward place to patronize.

  1. FRAME PRODUCTION

Viability

Seasonally viable.

Competition

Very high since no formal training is required to carry out the business.

Take-up fund

About N10,000.

Ready market (demand)

Demand varies from season to season since seasonal frames such as Valentine, independence day and new year have more demand.

Take-off requirement (e.g. registration, union affiliation, tools)

Hammer, frames, glass, pack of nails, writing and drawing tools.

Return on investment

Within the first few months.

Business risk

It is not dependable since it is seasonal.

 

 



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